Varang Kshiti is an abugida invented by Lako Bodra, used in primary and adult education and in various publications. It is used to write Ho, a language used in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Orissa. Community leader Bodra invented it as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Deowan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernized by Lako Bodra. The script begins with the letter Om, the first sound for the creation of the universe and has 32 letters in total with capital and small letters. It is written from left to right in horizontal lines, and each consonant has an inherent vowel, usually /a/ but sometimes /o/ or /e/. Varang Kshiti uses its own set of digits.