Reversed Question Mark

punctus percontativus, irony, sarcasm


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Technical information

Name Reversed Question Mark
Unicode number
BlockSupplemental Punctuation
Set Special symbols
Unicode version:5.2.0 (2009)

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Character description

Although in the written English language there is no standard way to denote irony or sarcasm, several forms of punctuation have been proposed. Among the oldest and frequently attested are the percontation point invented by English printer Henry Denham in the 1580s, and the irony mark, furthered by French poet Alcanter de Brahm in the 19th century. Both of these marks were represented visually by a backwards question mark.

These punctuation marks are primarily used to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. A bracketed exclamation point and/or question mark as well as scare quotes are also sometimes used to express irony or sarcasm.

Text is also available in the following languages: Русский; Magyar;

Related characters


Encoding hex dec (bytes) dec binary
UTF-8 E2 B8 AE 226 184 174 14858414 11100010 10111000 10101110
UTF-16BE 2E 2E 46 46 11822 00101110 00101110
UTF-16LE 2E 2E 46 46 11822 00101110 00101110
UTF-32BE 00 00 2E 2E 0 0 46 46 11822 00000000 00000000 00101110 00101110
UTF-32LE 2E 2E 00 00 46 46 0 0 774766592 00101110 00101110 00000000 00000000