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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet evolved from the Nabataean letter, the basis of which was Aramaic, and it, in turn, went from phoenician. The oldest found inscription dates back to the fourth century. Most likely it was some sort of transitional form. In 651, with the help of the Arabic alphabet, the Quran was compiled.

The Arabic alphabet spread with Islam, and eventually became one of the most famous. It can be seen in the regions of Western and Central Asia, Africa, as well as ethnic communities in East Asia, Europe and America. Arabica was used to record many languages: Persian, Pashto, Urdu and others. In particular, it was accepted by those peoples who already had their own written language. Tatars, Kazakhs, Bashkirs and others, used the Arabian graphics for many centuries. Latinization (and then the cyrillism) of the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR was conducted only in the twentieth century. Turkey refused Arabic writing, around this time.

27 of the 28 Arabic letters mean consonant sounds. Short vowels are depicted using superscripts and subscripts (diacritics). Although, usually they go down. 3 long vowel sounds are transmitted with the letters alif, yau, ya. The recording is from right to left.

A feature of the Arabic script is a different type of letters depending on where the words (in the beginning, in the end, or in the middle) are located. Also there is an isolated form in case the word consists of one letter.